National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces is not “al Qaeda”.

This is who the US and 19 other countries are supporting to form the new Syrian government when and if the Assad regime falls…not Al Qaeda…quit listening to the lies and bullshit from Iran and Syria and Russia and the far-right, far-left, libertarian, and anarchist nutjobs in the USA. It is not a perfect coalition but it is has got NOTHING to do with Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda doesn’t support democracy and pluralism and civil secular law and feminism.

National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Syrian National Council.
“National Coalition” redirects here. For the Salvadoran political party, see National Coalition (El Salvador). For the Egyptian political party, see National Conciliation Party (Egypt).
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces
الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية
Formation 11 November 2012 (in Doha, Qatar)
Purpose Opposition to and replacement of the Bashar al-Assad government of Syria
Headquarters Istanbul
Region served
Membership Council of about 114 members[2]
Official language
Secretary General
Anas Al-Abdah
Ahmad Jarba
Vice presidents
Riad Seif
Suheir Atassi
Prime Minister
Ahmad Tu’mah[3]
Parent organization
Syrian opposition

Syrian Independence flag, Used officially by the SNC

The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces (Arabicالائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية‎, FrenchCoalition Nationale pour les Forces révolutionnaires et de l’opposition syrienne), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (Arabicالائتلاف الوطني السوري‎, FrenchCoalition nationale syrienne) is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian civil war that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012. Former imam of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Moaz al-Khatib, considered a moderate, was elected the president of the coalition, and resigned on 21 April 2013.[4] Riad Seif and Suheir Atassi, both prominentdemocracy activists and the latter a secular feminist, were elected vice presidents. The post of a third vice president will remain vacant for a Kurdish figure to be elected.[5] Mustafa Sabbagh was elected as the coalition’s secretary-general.[6] The coalition has a council of 114 seats, though not all of them are filled.[2]

On 31 May 2013, the coalition gave membership to 15 representatives of the Free Syrian Army, allowing direct representation of rebels from Syria in a political group for the first time.[2] On 6 July, the coalition elected new leadership. Ahmad Asi Al-Jarba was elected president and Anas Al-Abdah was elected as secretary general. On 14 September 2013, the National Coalition selected Ahmad Tu’mah as prime minister of an interim government for Syria.[3] On 25 September 2013, some Islamist factions rejected the Syrian National Coalition stating that “All groups formed abroad without having returned to the country do not represent us.”[7]



Structure and aims[edit]

At its creation in November 2012 the National Coalition elected Moaz al-Khatib as its president, Riad Seif and Suheir Atassi as vice-presidents and Mustafa Sabbagh as secretary-general.[6] The coalition has a council of about 63 members,[8] including 22 members from the Syrian National Council.[6]

On 24 March 2013 Moaz al-Khatib made a surprise announcement that he was stepping down as president of the coalition. Although he gave no reason at the time, he later talked of interference by international and regional actors; the interviewer named these as Qatar and Saudi Arabia.[9] The coalition refused al-Khatib’s resignation. Khatib was still considered the “primary voice” of the Syrian opposition, and the following day the Arab League granted Khatib the position to head the coalition’s delegation to the Arab League.[10] He continued in office for almost another month before confirming his resignation on 21 April 2013.[4]

The main aims of the National Coalition are replacing the Bashar al-Assad government and “its symbols and pillars of support”, “dismantling the security services”, unifying and supporting the Free Syrian Army, refusing dialogue and negotiation with the al-Assad government, and “holding accountable those responsible for killing Syrians, destroying [Syria], and displacing [Syrians]”.[11]

Internal dissension[edit]

The Syrian National Council withdrew from the coalition on 20 January 2014 in protest at the decision of the coalition to attend the Geneva talks.[12] Another news agency (AP or Reuters) said, also in October, the largest group in the Syrian National Coalition was not willing to come to the peace conference because the Syrian regime continues its violence against civilians.[citation needed]

Syrian Interim Government[edit]

At a conference held in Istanbul on 19 March 2013, members of the National Coalition elected Ghassan Hitto as prime minister of an interim government for Syria. Hitto has announced that a technical government will be formed which will be led by between 10 and 12 ministers. The minister of defence is to be chosen by the Free Syrian Army.[13]

Domestic recognition[edit]

The Local Coordination Committees of Syria (LCCSyria) stated that they “[reaffirm their] participation in the National Coalition. The [LCCSyria have] worked hard, and will continue to spare no effort, to ensure the success of the National Coalition in its service to the revolution.”[11] The National Coalition is supported by the Free Syrian Army.[14]

On 16 November 2012, there were 497 street demonstrations in Syria according to the LCCSyria, including 121 demonstrations in Hama that “expressed support for the National Coalition” and 104 demonstrations in Idlib who called for the National Coalition to “support the revolutionaries”.[15]

Following the election of the Coalition’s president, several pro-Islamist media outlets have signalled their approvals for the formation of the new revolution bloc under the leadership of Sheikh Moaz Al-Khatib. Answering questions on his students’ portal EsinIslam ofThe Awqaf London the London-based Damascene graduate African Muslim cleric, Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Abdul-Fattah Adelabu called upon the Islamists and their affiliates to support the coalition’s leadership.[16] “The terrible situations in which the Syrians now find themselves do not warrant alienating reliable scholars like Dr. Moaz whatever their positions or affiliations in the face of al-Assad’s desperate acts of atrocities and crimes against humanity as a matter of urgency to free Syria”,[17] said Adelabu who was a friend and academic colleague of Dr. Al-Khatib during the 1990s in Damascus Islamic institutions. “We have been assured by members of the Jubhah that Sheikh Moaz is acceptable to them and that the decision to choose him was made by the Syrians themselves and not by the Americans, Britons, French or any other nationals”, the London based cleric added.[18]

Supporters of the Coalition inBologna, Italy.

Members of the al-Nusra Front and 13 other armed groups stated in a YouTube video on 19 November 2012 that they “unanimously reject the conspiratorial project called the National Coalition and announce[s] [its] consensus to establish an Islamic state [in Syria]”.[14] A day later, commanders of one of those groups, the Liwaa al-Tawhid Brigade appeared in a video with members of the Aleppo Military Council and Transitional Military Council. They stated that they supported the National Coalition and that the previous day’s statement was by “revolutionary forces on the ground” who were not sufficiently represented in the National Coalition.[19] The head of the Free Syrian Army in Aleppo, Abdel Jabbar al-Okaidi, responded to the 19 November statement, saying, “These groups represent a number of military factions on the ground and reflect their position, but not all military forces in Aleppo agree with this. The military council has announced its support for the National Coalition and is collaborating with [it].”[14] Members of the groups listed in the 19 November statement were contacted by Thomson Reuters and stated that “they had nothing to do with the announcement” and that some members of their groups appeared in the video.[20]

On 21 November 2012, the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD), which controls territory in the north of Syria, rejected the new coalition and criticised it for “obedience to Turkey and Qatar”.[21] The Kurdish National Councilagreed to join the Syrian National Coalition; the PYD criticized the KNC for doing so.[22]

According to The Economist, as of late September 2013, “In the month since America backed away from missile strikes to punish Syria’s regime for using chemical weapons, the Syrian Opposition Coalition has become increasingly irrelevant.”[23]

International recognition[edit]

Coalition members in Doha. In the center, president al-Khatib, along with VPs Seif and Atassi, as well as all SNCchairmen GhaliounSieda and Sabra

By March 2013, at least twenty states had recognized the SNC as ‘the (sole) legitimate representative of the Syrian people’:

  • On 10 October 2011, a year before the National Coalition was created, Libya recognised the Syrian National Council as the government of Syria.[24]
  • On 12 November 2012, the newly created National Coalition was recognised by the member states of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the GulfSaudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Oman, as “the legitimate representative” of the Syrian people, ceasing recognition of the Syrian government led by Bashar al-Assad.[25]
  • On 26 March 2013, the Arab League (with the exception of Algeria, Iraq and Lebanon)[26][27] recognised the coalition as “the legitimate representative and main interlocutor with the Arab League”.[28] The League did not give full recognition to the opposition; although, this statement was disputed by the Prime Minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber al-Thani.[26] He stated, “That claim is absolutely untrue, and the position of the two parties is identical” in response to the idea that the Arab League’s support was different from the support of the Cooperation Council.[27] He also stated that the Arab League “urges regional and international organisations to recognise [the National Coalition] as a legitimate representative for the aspirations of the Syrian people”.[26]
  • The United States issued a press statement on 11 November 2012 congratulating representatives of the Syrians for forming the coalition.[29] The press statement stated that “We look forward to supporting the National Coalition as it charts a course toward the end of Assad’s bloody rule and the start of the peaceful, just, democratic future that all the people of Syria deserve.”[29] It also restated its commitment to humanitarian and non-lethal assistance and commended Qatar for its role in the conference.[29] The United States regards the coalition as “a legitimate representative” of the Syrian people,[30] but president Barack Obama refused to recognise the Coalition as a “government in exile.”[31]
  • On 13 November, France recognised the coalition as the “only representative of the Syrian people” and as the “future interim government of democratic Syria”, and called for all European nations to do so as well.[32][33]
  • On 15 November, Turkey recognised the National Coalition as the sole representative of the Syrian people.[34][35][36]
  • On 19 November, The European Union recognised the National Coalition as “legitimate representatives of the aspirations of the Syrian people”.[37][38]
  • On 12 December, 100 “Friends of Syria” countries participating in the “Friends of Syria” meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco, informally recognized the Syrian National Coalition as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people. and gave full political recognition to the SNC.[39]
  • On 22 March 2013, the Syrian National Coalition was officially recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people by Malta. The Government of Malta had already informally recognized the Syrian opposition.[40]
  • On 26 March 2013, the Syrian National Coalition was granted Syria’s seat in the Arab League.[41]


Diplomatic recognition of the National Coalition as the legitimate representative of Syria
  Entity Date of recognition Direct terminology
1.  Bahrain 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
2.  Kuwait 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
3.  Oman 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
4.  Qatar 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
5.  Saudi Arabia 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
6.  United Arab Emirates 12 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of Syria[25]
7.  France 13 November 2012 Sole representative of the Syrian people and future interim government of democratic Syria[32][33]
8.  Turkey 15 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people[35]
 European Union 19 November 2012 The legitimate representative of the aspirations of the Syrian people[37]
9.  Italy 19 November 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[38]
10.  United Kingdom 20 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people[42]
11.  Spain 29 November 2012 Sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people[43][44][45]
12.  Denmark 9 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[46]
13.  Norway 9 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[47]
14.  Netherlands 10 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[48]
15.  Germany 10 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[48]
16.  Belgium 10 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[48]
17.  Luxembourg 10 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[48]
18.  United States 12 December 2012 Sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people[49]
19.  Australia 13 December 2012 The legitimate representative of the Syrian people[50]
20.  Malta 22 March 2013 Sole legal representative of the Syrian people[51]
 Arab League 26 March 2013 Arab League membership[41]

Diplomatic representation[edit]

As of 17 November 2012, Monzer Makhous was recognised by France as a representative of the National Coalition and as the future Syrian Ambassador “once a provisional government is established and recognised internationally.”[52]

On 20 November, UK invited the coalition to appoint a political representative.[53] On 26 November, the National Coalition appointed Walid Safur to be its ambassador to the UK.[54]

On 23 November, Qatar asked the coalition to appoint an ambassador, becoming the first Arab country to publicly announce it will accept an envoy from the new opposition body.[55] The SNCs embassy in Qatar was opened on 27 March 2013.[56]

List of Presidents[edit]

No. Portrait Name
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
1 Sheikh Ahmed Moaz Al Khatib.jpg Moaz al-Khatib 11 November 2012 22 April 2013 Independent  

George Sabra جورج صبرة 1993.jpg George Sabra 22 April 2013 6 July 2013 Independent  

2 Sheikh Ahmad al-Assi al-Jarba.jpg Ahmad Jarba 6 July 2013 incumbent Independent  

Jarba was re-elected on January 5, 2014

Members and representatives[edit]

At present, the Syrian National Coalition consists of the Syrian National Council and other opposition groups and revolutionary groups, as listed in the following diagram, third column:[8]

  Name Representation Role
1 Moaz al-Khatib (Arabicمعاذ الخطيب‎)[6] Local Council of Damascus  
2 Riad Seif (Arabicرياض سيف‎)[6] National figures Vice President
3 Suheir Atassi (Arabicسهير الأتاسي‎)[6] Syrian Revolution General Commission Vice President
Head of Humanitarian Support Unit
4 Mustafa Sabbagh (Arabicمصطفى صباغ‎)[6] Syrian Business Forum Secretary-General
5 Haitham al-Maleh (Arabicهيثم المالح‎)[8] Council of Syrian Revolutionary Trustees Head of Legal Committee
6 Mouafffaq Nyrabia (Arabicموفق نيربية‎)[57] Citizenship Movement Incoming ambassador  European Union and Benelux ,  The Netherlands ,  Belgium ,  Luxembourg
7 Marwan Hajo (Arabicمروان حجو ‎)[58] Syrian National Council Head of Membership Committee
8 Walid al-Bunni (Arabicوليد البني‎)[59] National figures Spokesman
9 Monzer Makhous (Arabicمنذر ماخوس‎)[52] National figures Spokesman
Incoming ambassador  France
10 Walid Saffour (Arabicوليد سفور ‎) Syrian Human Rights Committee Incoming ambassador  United Kingdom
11 Jaber Zain (Arabicجابر زعين‎)[8] Local Coordination Committees  
12 Ahmad al-Assi al-Jarba (Arabicاحمد العاصي الجربا‎)[8] Revolutionary Council of Syrian Clans  
13 Mohammad al-Sabuni (Arabicمحمد الصابوني‎)[8] Syrian Scholars Association  
14 Sadiq Jalal al-Azm (Arabicصادق جلال العظم‎)[8] Unions of Syrian Authors  
15 Alhareth al-Nabhan (Arabicالحارث النبهان‎)[8] Citizenship Movement  
16 Bassam Yousef (Arabicبسام يوسف‎)[8] Ma’an Alliance  
17 Yehia Ghiqab (Arabicيحيى غقاب‎)[8] Syrian National Democratic bloc  
18 Khaled Khouja (Arabicخالد خوجة‎)[8] Turkmen component  
19 Ziyad al-Hasan (Arabicزياد الحسن‎)[8] Turkmen component  
20 Hussien Alabdullah (Arabicحسين العبد الله‎)[8] Turkmen component  
21 Abdul Hakim Bashar (Arabicعبد الحكيم بشار‎)[8] Kurdish National Council  
22 Mustafa Auso (Arabicمصطفى أوسو‎)[8] Kurdish National Council  
23 Mohammad Abdo Kiddo (Arabicمحمد عبدو كدو‎)[8] Kurdish National Council  
24 Abdelilah Abdelmoeen Fahd (Arabicعبد الإله عبد المعين فهد‎)[8] Local Council of Homs  
25 Mustafa Nawaf al-Ali (Arabicمصطفى نواف العلي‎)[8] Local Council of ar-Raqqah  
26 Jawad Abohatab (Arabicجواد أبو حطب‎)[8] Local Council of Rif Dimashq  
27 Riyad al-Hasan (Arabicرياض الحسن‎)[8] Local Council of Deir ez-Zor  
28 Moussa Mohammad Khalil (Arabicموسى محمد خليل‎)[8] Local Council of Quneitra  
29 Ziyad Ghassan (Arabicزياد غسان‎)[8] Local Council of Latakia  
30 Mohammad Abdelsalam al-Sayed (Arabicمحمد عبد السلام السيد‎)[8] Local Council of Tartus  
31 Mohammad Qaddah (Arabicمحمد قداح‎)[8] Local Council of Daraa  
32 Adnan Rahmon (Arabicعدنان رحمون‎)[8] Local Council of Idlib  
33 Jalal Khanji (Arabicجلال خانجي‎)[8] Local Council of Aleppo  
34 Salaheddin al-Hamwi (Arabicصلاح الدين الحموي‎)[8] Local Council of Hama  
35 Mohammad Mustafa Mohammad (Arabicمحمد مصطفى محمد‎)[8] Local Council of al-Hasakah  
36 Khaled Abu Salah (Arabicخالد ابو صلاح‎)[8] National figures  
37 Yehya Kurdi (Arabicيحيى كردي‎)[8] National figures  
38 Ali Sadreddine Al-Bayanouni (Arabicعلي صدر الدين البيانوني‎)[8] National figures  
39 Abdelkarim Bakar (Arabicعبدالكريم بكار‎)[8] National figures  
40 Najib al-Ghadban (Arabicنجيب الغضبان‎)[8] National figures  
41 Tawfiq Dunya (Arabicتوفيق دنيا‎)[8] National figures  
42 Ziyad Abu Hamdan (Arabicزياد ابوحمدان‎)[8] National figures  
43 Kamal al-Labwani (Arabicكمال اللبواني‎)[8] National figures  
44 George Sabra (Arabicجورج صبرة‎)[8] Syrian National Council Acting President
45 Abdulbaset Sieda (Arabicعبد الباسط سيدا‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
46 Mohammed Farouk Tayfour (Arabicمحمد فاروق طيفور‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
47 Burhan Ghalioun (Arabicبرهان غليون‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
48 Nazir al-Hakim (Arabicنذير الحكيم‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
49 Samir Nashar (Arabicسمير نشار‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
50 Ahmad Ramadan (Arabicأحمد رمضان‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
51 Jamal al-Wared (Arabicجمال الورد‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
52 Hussein al-Sayed (Arabicحسين السيد‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
53 Khaled Saleh (Arabicخالد صالح‎)[8] Syrian National Council Head of Media Committee
54 Hisham Marwa (Arabicهشام مروة‎)[8] Syrian National Council Member of the Executive office
55 Abdulahad Astepho (Arabicعبد الأحد اصطيفو‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
56 Salem al-Meslat (Arabicسالم المسلط‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
57 Bassam Isaac (Arabicبسام إسحاق‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
58 Mouti al-Batin (Arabicمطيع البطين‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
59 Khaled al-Naser (Arabicخالد الناصر‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
60 Mohammad Sarmini (Arabicمحمد سرميني‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
61 Louay Safi (Arabicلؤي صافي‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
62 Mohammad Khedr Wali (Arabicمحمد خضر ولي‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
63 Hanan al-Balkhi (Arabicحنان البلخي‎)[8] Syrian National Council  
64 Wasel al-Shamali (Arabicواصل الشمالي‎)[8] Syrian National Council  

See also[edit]



  1. Jump up^ “Syria opposition bloc makes Cairo its HQ”. Al Jazeera English. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “Syria Opposition Expands, Closes Meeting”.Naharnet. 31 May 2013.
  3. Jump up to:a b “Syrian opposition elects moderate Islamist as prime minister”Reuters. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  4. Jump up to:a b Black, Ian (21 April 2013). “Syria: opposition anger over US refusal to fund arms”The Guardian (London).
  5. Jump up^ “Syria’s opposition chooses president, formally signs coalition deal”. Al Arabiya. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Rebhy, Abdullah (11 November 2012). “Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal”. Associated Press. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  7. Jump up^ “Islamist rebels in Syria reject National Coalition”. BBC News. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad aeaf ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay azba bb bc bd be Leverrier, Ignace (12 November 2012).“Composition de la “Coalition nationale des Forces de la Révolution et de l’Opposition syrienne”” (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  9. Jump up^ Moaz al-Khatib: The priority is to save SyriaAl Jazeera. 11 May 2013. Event occurs at 03:11.
  10. Jump up^ Elizabeth Dickinson (2013-09-04). “Qatar’s emir proposes Jerusalem fund as Arab League summit opens – The National”. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  11. Jump up to:a b “The National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Force”Local Coordination Committees of Syria. 12 November 2012.
  12. Jump up^ “Main bloc quits Syrian National Coalition over Geneva”. The Times of Israel. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  13. Jump up^ “Syrian rebels to choose interim defence minister | Middle East”. World Bulletin. 2013-03-29. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  14. Jump up to:a b c “Islamic groups reject Syria opposition bloc”France 24. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
  15. Jump up^ “Syria Today 16-11-2012”Local Coordination Committees of Syria. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
  16. Jump up^ “العربية لوسائل الإعلام والمعلومات الإسلامية من الأخبار والفتاوى والمنتديات والمدونات التعلمية فيما يتضمن التسجيلات الصوتية وأفلام فيديو، وصحف، ومجلات، ومقالات الأخبار”. EsinIslam. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  17. Jump up^ Moaz Who, Sheikh? Reveal Al-Khatib
  18. Jump up^ Sehikh Abu-Abdullah Adelabu’s title Moaz Who, Sheikh? Reveal Al-Khatib
  19. Jump up^ Atassi, Basma (20 November 2012). “Aleppo rebels retract rejection of coalition”Al Jazeera English.
  20. Jump up^ Holmes, Oliver (19 November 2012). “UPDATE 2-Syrian rebels say they seize base on Damascus outskirts”.Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
  21. Jump up^ Syria Kurdish leader rejects new coalition
  22. Jump up^ “PYD Leader Skeptical of Kurdish Agreement With Syrian Opposition”. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
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  24. Jump up^ “Libya NTC says recognises Syrian National Council”. Khaleej Times. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  25. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “GCC recognizes Syria’s new opposition bloc”.Al Arabiya. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  26. Jump up to:a b c “Syria crisis: Arab League welcomes new opposition bloc”. BBC News. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  27. Jump up to:a b “Arab League recognizes new Syrian opposition coalition”CNN (Turner Broadcasting System). 12 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  28. Jump up^ “Arab League recognises Syria’s new opposition bloc”Al Arabiya News. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  29. Jump up to:a b c Toner, Mark C. (11 November 2012). “Formation of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces”. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  30. Jump up^ “Syria: France backs anti-Assad coalition”BBC News. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  31. Jump up^ Richter, Paul (15 November 2012). “President Obama won’t recognize Syrian rebels”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
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  40. Jump up^ Malta recognises Syrian opposition
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  47. Jump up^ “Norge anerkjenner Syrias opposisjon”Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). 9 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
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  49. Jump up^ Madhani, Aamer (12 December 2012). “Obama says U.S. will recognize Syrian opposition”USA Today.
  50. Jump up^ “Syrian Opposition Council”Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  51. Jump up^ Malta on Friday officially recognised the Syrian Opposition National Coalition as the sole legal representative of Syria
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  56. Jump up^ “First Syrian opposition embassy opens in Qatar”. GlobalPost. 2013-03-27. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  57. Jump up^ Cite error: The named reference Muwatana was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  58. Jump up^ “الائتلاف الوطني لقوى المعارضة والثورة السورية يرجئ تشكيل حكومة انتقالية”. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  59. Jump up^ “Assad;s opponents dismiss his ‘peace plan’ with scorn”. Al Arabiya News. 6 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-01-06.

External links[edit]

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